This piece is a so-called "variation". It consists of a theme and 20 variations. The theme is a series of 20 chords, each of which has a different duration (note length), and each of which has slightly different notes. Then, in a variation, from the theme or the previous variation, one of the 20 chords has a different duration and another chord has a slightly different component tones besides. By doing this process 20 times, the 20th variation turns into a series of chords that are all slightly different from the first theme, but all with different durations and component tones.
In addition to the process described above, there is also a process in which the theme, which was only a loud chord, is gradually replaced by a soft chord as it goes through the variations.